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ICC Creation Timeline
The International Criminal Court (ICC) traces its roots to 1919. But it would be another 70 years before the court became a reality when in 1989 A. N. R. Robinson, Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago with the goal toward fighting illegal drug trade restarted the process through United Nations (UN) that resulted to the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) adoption by a vote of 120 to 7 with 21 countries abstaining. The 7 countries that voted against the treaty were: China, Iraq, Israel, Libya, Qatar, United States, and Yemen.
Timeline of ICC
1919: International tribunal to judge political leaders accused of war crimes was first made during the Paris Peace Conference by the Commission of Responsibilities.
1937: First convention for establishment of a permanent international court to try acts of international terrorism signed by 13 governments. Was never ratified to become effected.
1948: The General Assembly of the The United Nations that was formed in 1945 recognizes the need for a permanent international court to deal with atrocities of the kind committed during World War II. The General Assembly asks the International Law Commission draft two statutes. Cold war makes the establishment of an international criminal court politically unrealistic.
1989: Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, A. N. R. Robinson, proposes the creation of a permanent international court to deal with the illegal drug trade. Work begins on a draft statute.
1994: The ILC presents its final draft statute for an ICC to the United Nations General Assembly. The international community establishes tribunals to try war crimes in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and uses this to highlight the need for a permanent international criminal court.
1995: To consider major substantive issues in the draft statute, the General Assembly establishes Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court.
1996 - 1998: Six sessions of the United Nations Preparatory Committee were held at the United Nations headquarters in New York, in which NGOs provided input into the discussions and attended meetings under the umbrella of the NGO Coalition for an ICC (CICC).
1998: The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court was adopted by a vote of 120 to 7, with 21 countries abstaining. The seven countries that voted against the treaty were: China, Iraq, Israel, Libya, Qatar, United States, and Yemen.
2002: The Rome Statute became a binding treaty on 11 April 2002, after the number of countries that had ratified reached sixty and legally came into force on 1 July 2002 to prosecute any cases from this date going forward.
2003: The first bench of judges elected by an Assembly of States Parties in February 2003 and sworn in at inaugural March 2003.
2005: Court issues first arrest warrants on July 2005.
2006: First pre-trial hearings were held.
2010: Review Conference of the International Criminal Court Statute held in Kampala, Uganda. Two amendments to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court adopted. One amendment concerns the definition of crime of aggression. Summons of 6 Kenyans issued.
2012: 121 countries are members
2013: 122 countries are members. 34 countries of the 54 countries in Africa have ratified.